top of page

Handmade Paper Making in India: A Comprehensive Guide

Handmade paper holds immense cultural and historical significance in India. With its rich tradition and meticulous craftsmanship, the art of making handmade paper has been passed down through generations. This guide provides a detailed description of the process of handmade paper making in India, highlighting the materials, tools, and techniques involved.

I. Historical Background of Handmade Paper in India:

Handmade paper production in India dates back to ancient times, with evidence of its existence in the 3rd century BCE. The process was introduced by Chinese travelers and later refined by Indian artisans. Initially, handmade paper was made from plant fibers such as cotton, hemp, jute, and mulberry. Over time, different regions in India developed their distinct techniques and materials, resulting in a diverse range of handmade papers.

Pahi Craft Handmade Paper Making

II. Materials and Tools Required :

To make handmade paper, you will need the following materials and tools:

Plant Fibers:

Cotton rags


Banana fiber

Mulberry bark


Clean, filtered water


Alum (aluminum sulfate)


Sizing agents (such as starch or animal glue)

Molds and Deckles:

Wooden frames with a mesh screen (deckles) to define the paper's edges

The mold and deckle should be the desired size and shape of the paper sheet.

Vat or Tub:

A large container or vat to hold the paper pulp and facilitate the dipping process.

Blender or Hollander Beater:

A blender or a Hollander beater to break down the plant fibers and create a pulp.

Drying Equipment:

Absorbent materials like felt sheets or wool blankets

Wooden boards or pressing equipment

A drying area with proper ventilation

III. Step-by-Step Process of Handmade Paper Making:

Preparation of Raw Materials:

Collect the desired plant fibers, such as cotton rags or mulberry bark. Ensure that the fibers are of good quality and free from contaminants.

Sort and clean the fibers by removing any dirt, dust, or foreign objects. You can rinse them with water and squeeze out excess moisture.

Cut the fibers into smaller pieces to facilitate the processing and breaking down of the fibers later on.

Beating the Fiber:

Start by soaking the plant fibers in clean water overnight or until they become soft and pliable. This soaking process helps to separate and loosen the fibers for further processing.

Once the fibers are sufficiently soaked, place them in a blender or a Hollander beater, along with water. The ratio of fibers to water can very depending on the desired consistency of the paper pulp.

Blend the fibers and water together to create a slurry. The blending process breaks down the fibers, separating them and creating a homogeneous mixture. If you don't have access to a blender, you can beat the fibers manually using wooden mallets or by pounding them with stones. This manual process requires more effort but can yield similar results.

Creating the Pulp:

Transfer the fiber slurry into a large vat or tub. Add more water to achieve the desired consistency of the pulp. Stir the mixture gently to ensure that the fibers are evenly dispersed throughout the liquid.

At this stage, you can optionally add sizing agents such as starch or animal glue to the pulp. Sizing agents enhance the paper's strength, improve its surface properties, and make it more resistant to ink absorption. The exact amount of sizing agent needed will depend on personal preference and the type of paper you want to create.

Forming the Paper Sheet:

To begin forming the paper sheet, immerse the mold and deckle in the vat of pulp mixture. The mold is the frame with a mesh screen, while the deckle acts as a frame around the mold, defining the edges of the paper sheet.

Submerge the mold and deckle in the vat, making sure they are parallel to each other. Gently shake the mold and deckle back and forth in the water to allow the fibers to collect evenly on the screen surface. This helps in forming a uniform and consistent sheet of paper.

Once the fibers have settled on the screen, lift the mold and deckle vertically, allowing the excess water to drain back into the vat. This drainage process is crucial for obtaining the desired thickness of the paper sheet.

Note: At this stage, you can also incorporate decorative elements such as flower petals or leaves onto the wet pulp. These additions add a unique touch and visual appeal to the handmade paper.

Pressing and Drying:

Carefully transfer the wet paper sheet from the mold onto a felt sheet or a wool blanket. Place another felt sheet or blanket on top of the wet paper to sandwich it. The felt helps in absorbing excess water from the paper.

Apply gentle pressure to the paper stack using wooden boards or a pressing machine. The pressure helps remove additional water from the paper, compresses the fibers, and aids in bonding them together.

After pressing, separate the paper sheet from the felt and place it on a drying rack or a flat surface with proper ventilation. Ensure that the drying area is free from excessive moisture to prevent the formation of mildew.

Allow the paper to air dry naturally. The drying time can very depending on factors like humidity and thickness of the paper. Once the paper is completely dry, it will be firm and crisp to the touch.

Note: If you want the paper to be extra smooth and flat, you can further press it using weights or a heavy object. Place the dried paper between layers of blotting paper or newsprint and apply even pressure for a period of time.

Finishing Touches:

Once the paper is dry, trim the edges of the sheet to achieve the desired size and shape. You can use a ruler and a sharp knife or scissors for precise cutting.

For an added touch of refinement, you can polish the surface of the paper using a smooth object like a bone folder or a burnishing tool. This process helps to smoothen any imperfections, enhancing the overall appearance and feel of the handmade paper.


Handmade paper making in India is a meticulous and artistic craft that has been practiced for centuries. By following the detailed steps outlined in this guide, you can embark on the journey of creating your own unique handmade paper pieces. The process requires patience, attention to detail, and a passion for preserving the cultural heritage of India. Enjoy the experience of making eco-friendly and visually captivating handmade paper that reflects the richness of Indian craftsmanship.

Special Note :

Out Of India Customers are interested to buy our Products Click Here


bottom of page